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Adi People
About Adi People

The Adi, or Bokar Lhoba people is a main collective tribe who lives in the Himalayan hills of Arunachal Pradesh. They are found in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of East Siang, Upper Siang, West Siang, Lower Dibang Valley and Lohit. The older term Abor is a deprecated exonym from Assamese meaning "uncontrolled". Some of them are also found in Southern Tibet. The literal meaning of Adi is "hill" or "mountain top".The language spoken by Adi People is also called Adi. It is spoken with minor variations among all the Adi sub-groups.

The Adis live in hill villages, each traditionally keeping to itself, under a selected chief styled Gam or Gao Burra who moderates the village council, which acts even as the traditional court Kebang. The olden day councils consisted of all the village elder and decisions were taken in a Musup/Dere (village community house) on a majority verdict. The sub-groups within Adis include:
1) Karko
2) Shimong
3) Millang
4) Komkar
5) Pangi
6) Minyong
7) Padam
8) Bokar-Palibo-Ramo
9) Pasi
10) Bori

 
Lifestyle of Adi People

The Adi practice wet rice cultivation and have a substantial agricultural economy. Rice serves as the staple food for the them. Trapping and hunting, increasingly with firearms, supplement the diet; the favorite prey is the abundant rat, prepared in various ways, including pieces of rat and other meat in a rice flour cake wrapped in banana leaves, served duringAran. The Adi keep pigs, chickens, mithuns and grow vegetables. They keep pigs in a very unusual way: The pigs are kept in a fenced area under the house, which is on stilts and feed on human waste as the pig pen is located right under the toilet. The pigs are let out in the day. The meat of the toilet pig is believed a delicacy.

 
Religion of Adi People

The majority of Adi' usually follow the animist Donyi-Polo religion, which occupies the worship of the sun, the moon, and the ancestral god, the shaman, called Miri (can be a female). Other deities usually worshiped by the Adi comprise Doying Bote, Gumin Soyin, Pedong Nane and Kine Nane. Each deity is linked with certain tasks and acts as a protector and guardian of several topics related to nature which revolves around their daily life. This comprises the food crops, home, rain, etc.

In modern times a lot of of the Adis have moved away from Donyi-Polo. A growing number of Adi, especially among the youth, have changed to Christianity. Adis in Tibet, in particular the Bokars, have adopted Tibetan Buddhism to a certain extent, as a result of Tibetan influence. But in recent years there was a revival in the faith and the search for indigenousity on the part of the people made it famous with the youth again. Followers of Donyi-Polo faith can also be found in parts of upper Assam among the Mishing tribe. According to the available knowledge of history and folklore the Mishings were the Adis who migrated to Assam.

Culture

Dormitories play a vital role among the Adi tribe, and certain rules are observed. For example, a male can visit the dormitory of a female, although he is not allowed to stay overnight. At times, guardians will have to be around to guide the youngsters.There are separate dresses for men and women which are naturally weaved by women folk of the tribes. Helmets made from bear ,cane, and deer skin are sometimes worn by the men, depending on the region.

While the older women wear yellow necklaces and spiral earrings, unmarried girls wear a beyop, an ornament that consists of five to six brass plates fixed under their petticoats. Tattooing was popular among the older women.The traditional measure of a family's wealth is the possession of beads and ornament and land.

Festivals and dances

The Adi celebrate a number of festivals, in particular their prime festival Solung, in the first week of September for five days or more. It is a harvest festival performed after the sowing of seeds and transplantation, to seek for future bumper crops. Ponung songs and dances are performed during the festival. On the last day of Solung, throne and indigenous weaponry are displayed along the passage of the houses - a belief that they would protect people from evil spirits.

Adi dances vary from the slow, rural and beautifully enthralling style Ponung to the exciting, enthusiastic thumps of Delong. These dances have led to some forms of dancing which jointly narrate a story, the Tapu War Dance. In the Tapu War Dance, the dancers enthusiastically re-enact the actions of war, its violent details and the magnificent cries of the warriors. Yakjong is another kind of dance whereby the dancers carry sticks with designs created by removing the barks in certain patterns and then put into the fire for some time, which creates the marked black designs.

Following festivals are celebrated by Adi People 
1) Aran or Yakjong Festival is celebrated on March 7
2) Solung Etor Festival is celebrated on May 15
3) Solung Ponung Festival is celebrated on September 1
4) Podi Barbie Festival is celebrated on December 5

 

 


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