Welcome to Gujarat


North India

South India

East India

North East











Bird Watching





Special Tours

Train Tours





Car Rental

View All Tours


India Tours

31 Days Rajasthan

30 Days Gujarat 

26 Days South

19 Days North India

18 Days Rajasthan 

17 Days South

16 Days Shekhwati

14 Days North India

13 Days Sikkim

11 Days Nepal

9 Days Ladakh

8 Days Taj Triangle

4 Days Tibet

Travel Guide
Indian Architecture 
Indian Embassies
Flight Sickness
India Information
Nepal Information 
India Geography
Indian History
Media in India
 Modern History
Music in India
Musical instruments
Paintings of India
Reaching India
Temperature Guide 
Visa Information
Indian Wildlife

North India Tours

Impressions of Ladakh

Highlights  North India

North India By Road

North India & Nepal

Temple Tour in India

19 Days Buddhist Tour

North India with Puri

Temple Tiger Tour

Adventure Tours

Himalaya Trekking

Rafting on Ganges

River Rafting

Rajasthan on Bicycle

Biking in Sikkim

India River Rafting

Cycling in Ladakh

Tons River Rafting

Ladakh Biking Tour

Garhwal Trekking

River Rafting Tour

Trekking in Ladakh

Indus River Rafting

Safari Tours

India Bhutan Jeep Safari

Camel Safari Tour

Rajasthan Heritage Safari

Rajasthan Desert Safari

Rajasthan Horse Safari 

Himachal Jeep Safari

Travel Tools

Airlines in India

Railway Timetable

India Dialing Codes

Currency Converter

Distance Calculator

Time Converter

India Guide

About India


Plains of India

Western Ghats

India Civilisation 

Hindu Temple

The Stupas 

Rock Cut Architect

Cave Architecture

Sivalik Hills
About Sivalik Hills

The Sivalik hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas also known as Manak Parbatin in ancient times. Shivalik exactly means 'tresses of Shiva’. This range is about 2,400 km long enclosing an area that starts almost from the Indus and ends close to the Brahmaputra with a gap of about 90 kms between the Teesta and Raidak rivers in Assam. The width of the Shivalik hills varies from 10 to 50 km, their average altitude is 1,500 to 2,000 m.

Other spelling variations used include Shivalik and Siwalik, originating from the Hindi and Nepali word 'shiwālik parvat'. Other names include Churia hills, Chure hills and Margalla hills.


Low population densities in the Siwalik and along the steep southern slopes of the Mahabharat Range, plus strong malaria in the damp forests on their fringes create a cultural, linguistic and political buffer zone between dense populations in the plains to the south and the "hills" beyond the Mahabharat escarpment, isolating the two populations from each other and enabling different evolutionary paths with respect to language, race and culture. People of the Lepcha tribe inhabit the Sikkim and Darjeeling areas.


Sivapithecus (a kind of ape, formerly known as Ramapithecus) is among many fossil finds in the Siwalik region. The Siwalik Hills are also among the richest fossil sites for large animals anywhere in Asia. The Hills had disclosed that all kinds of animals lived there. They were early ancestors to the sloth bear, Sivatherium, an ancient giraffe, Colossochelys atlas, a giant tortoise amongst other creatures.

The remains of the Lower Paleolithic Soanian culture have been found in the Siwalik region.Contemporary to the Acheulean, the Soanian culture is named after the Soan Valley in the Siwalik Hills of Pakistan. The bearers of this culture were Homo erectus.


The Sivalik hills are the southernmost and geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the Himalayas. The Siwaliks have many sub-ranges. They extend west from Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan to West Bengal, and further westward through Nepal and Uttarakhand, continuing into Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The hills are cut through at wide intervals by numerous large rivers flowing south from the Himalayas. Smaller rivers without sources in the high Himalayas are more likely to deviate around sub-ranges. Southern slopes have networks of channels and small rills, giving rise to transient streams during the monsoon and into the post-monsoon season until groundwater supplies are exhausted.

The Sivalik hills are mainly composed of sandstone and rock formations which are the solidified detritus of the great range in their back but often poorly consolidated. The remnant magnetization of siltstones and sandstones suggests a depositional age of 16-5.2 million years with Karnali River exposing the oldest part of the Siwalik Group in Nepal.

They are bounded on the south by a fault system called the Main Frontal Thrust, with steeper slopes on that side. Below this, the coarse alluvial Bhabhar zone makes the transition to the nearly level plains. Rainfall, especially during the summer monsoon, penetrates into the bhabar, then is forced to the surface by finer alluvial layers below it in a zone of springs and marshes along the northern edge of the Terai or plains. This wet zone was heavily malarial crawled before DDT was used to suppress mosquitoes. It was left forested by official decree by Nepal's Rana rulers as a suspicious perimeter called Char Kose Jhadi. Upslope, the permeable geology together with temperatures usually exceeding 40° Celsius throughout April and May only supports a low, sparse, drought-tolerant scrub forest.

North of the Siwalik belt the 1,500-3,000 meter Lesser Himalayas also known as the Mahabharat Range rises suddenly along fault lines. In many places the two ranges are adjacent but in other places structural valleys 10–20 km wide separate them. These valleys are called Duns or Doons in India, which includes Dehradun, Patli Dun and Kothri Dun, both in Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, and also Pinjore Dun in Himachal Pradesh. In Nepal, these valleys are called Inner Terai and include Chitwan, Dang-Deukhuri and Surkhet.

Birds in the Shivaliks of Himachal Pradesh

Chestnut-Bellied Rock Thrush pair, Chestnut-Bellied Nuthatch, Scaly-Brested Munia (right) and Juveniles, Ashy Drongo, Fulvous-Breasted Woodpecker, White Eye, Bush Warbler, Himalayan Bulbul, Scarlet Minivet, Long Tailed Minivet, Minivet, Grey Bushchat, , Bar Winged Flycatcher Shrike Black Bulbuls, Grey Treepie, Grey-Capped Pygmy Woodpecker , White-Crested Laughingthrush.


Tours all over India – Nepal and Bhutan Home Mail to tourism expert of India e-mail  Online chat regarding travel and tours to India Chat Get contact information to Indian Tour Operator and Travel Agent Contact  Send your enquiry or tour request. Enquiry  Tour and Travel experts for India and Indian sub-continent About Us

Your feedback about travel and tours to India and Indian sub-continentFeedback


Visit the site map of Indo Vacations Site Map India related and other useful links Links

Copyright © Indo Vacations. All Rights Reserved.