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Indus Valley
About Indus Valley

The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Residents of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft such as carnelian products, seal carving & metallurgy such as copper, bronze, tin, and lead. The civilization is noted for its cities constructed of brick, multistoried houses and roadside drainage system.

The Harappan language is not directly attested and its connection is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favored by a section of scholars.

Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent,which consists of mainly what is now Pakistan, and parts of India, Afghanistan and Iran. Prospering around the Indus River basin, the civilization extends to east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches of Ganges-Yamuna Doab ,it extends west to the Makran coast of Balochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The civilization was extend over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest known ancient civilization.

The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was situated at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with vital breakthroughs taking place as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Up to 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements have been founded, out of which 96 have been excavated,mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra river and Indus river and its tributaries. The major settlements were the urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi.



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