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Aravali Range
About Aravali Range

The Aravalli Range (Aravali) literally meaning 'line of peaks', is a range of mountains in western India running about 800 km in a northeastern direction across Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.It is also called Mewat hills locally.

The Aravalli range are the oldest fold mountains in India. At present The Aravali range is only a reminiscent of the gigantic system that existed in the prehistoric times with several of its summits rising above the snow line and nutritious glaciers of awesome magnitude which in turn fed many great glaciers. The Aravalis now exhibit a wonderful Semi-Dry Deciduous Forest.

The Aravalli Range is the tough end of a range of ancient folded mountains.The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravalli-Delhi orogen. The range joins two of the ancient segments that make up the Indian craton, the Marwarsegment to the northwest of the range, and the Bundelkhand segment to the southeast.

Features of Aravali Range

Undulating hills of Aravali, supporting the dry deciduous forests, provide an unbelievable wonderful ambience. The area is rich in floral diversity- mainly medicinal plants. It has several floral and faunal species of global conservation importance. The rare flora comprises Kadaya (giving medicinal gum), Gugal, amla and Moosli etc. The main trees are- Khair, Salai, Modad, Dhavada, Khakhara, Timru. During late winters (February-March) Khakhara-the flame of the forests- known by many different names such as- Palash, Tesu, Kesudo, Dhak etc. is generally in bloom with its prominent red color resembling flames in the forests. The rare animals comprise sloth bear, striped hyena, leopard, bluebull, porcupine, fox, small Indian civet, Indian pangolin and a number of reptiles including venomous and non-venomous snakes, monitor lizards, star tortoise etc. The rare birds of this area are adjutant Stork, spoonbill, osprey, white backed Vulture and black vultures.

The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana state, ending in Delhi. The well-known Delhi Ridge is the last leg of the Aravalli Range, which cross through South Delhi and terminates into Central Delhi where Raisina hill is its last extension. It is one of the world's oldest mountain ranges. It dates back to a pre-Indian subcontinental collision with the mainland Eurasian Plate. The southern end is at Palanpur close to Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The highest peak is Guru Shikhar in Mount Abu in Rajasthan. Rising to 5650 feet (1722 meters), it lies near the south-western extremity of the range, nereby the border with Gujarat District. The city of Udaipur with its lakes lies on the south slope of the range in Rajasthan. Numerous rivers rise amidst the ranges together with the Luni River, the Banas River, the Sakhi ,Sabarmati, and the Sahibi River.

Old fold mountains are portrayed by having stopped growing higher due to the cessation of upward thrust caused by the stopping of movement of the tectonic plates in the Earth's crust below them. In ancient times they were extremely high but since have worn down almost completely by millions of years of weathering. In contrast, the Himalayas are continuously rising young fold mountains of today.

Significance of Aravali Range

The forests of “The Aravalis” play a significant role in conserving the depleting eco-system and in controlling the southward development of The Thar Desert. The forest areas are combined with several hills and hillocks form the watershed for various dams across the state. It also constitutes part of the catchment areas of life giving important Rivers & streams. The ecological boundaries of Aravalis in Rajasthan State get amalgamated with forests of Haryana & Delhi States in the north ,and ,Spreads into agricultural fields all around providing ecological security and ameliorated environment to the semi arid region of Gujarat in the South & The expansive districts of Jaisalmer & Barmer to the west which is threatened by expanding desert.


Being rich in mineral resources, the Aravalli hills have witnessed years of illegal mining, which have led to their fast erosion in Rajasthan and Haryana. This also causes a serious environmental concern as the ranges form a natural barrier against the spread of the Thar desert northwards into the Gangetic plains in the Gangetic basin and Gujarat.

In May 2009, after months of media and public protests, along with several environmental groups, the Supreme Court banned mining in an area of 448 km2 across Faridabad, Gurgaon and Mewat districts in Haryana, that was once supposed to be set aside for a national park. This comes after the earlier court judgment in 1994 that allowed limited mining on the basis of the sustainable development principle under strict guidelines. Violation of the guidelines by local miners led to the court ban ruling. However, there are many illegal mines in Rajasthan, some of them operating at the edges of the Sariska Tiger Reserve.


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